United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
192 countries around the world have joined an international treaty that sets general goals and rules for confronting climate change. The UNFCCC was one of three conventions adopted at the 1992 "Rio Earth Summit." The others -- the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification -- involve matters strongly affected by climate change. Attempts are being made to coordinate the work of the three agreements.
The UNFCC has the goal of preventing "dangerous" human interference with the climate system. The UNFCCC Secretariat is based in Bonn, Germany. Parties of the Convention meet multiple times per year with the Conference of Parties (COP)/Meetings of Parties (CMP) being held in November-December.
Kyoto Protocol (Source: UNFCCC)
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of 5.2% against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.
The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol commits them to do so.